Research into Recovery and Wellbeing

A website about the work of the recovery research team at the Institute of Mental Health

The University of Nottingham

Adult Camberwell of Need (CAN) translations

Adult CAN translations and translators

CAN has been translated into 27 languages. The following is a list of people who carried out an original translation. Their affiliation and contact details were correct at the time of translation, but may not be so now.



John Joska

Department of Psychiatry, University of Cape Town

c/o The Registrar, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701, RSA



Professor David Arthur

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong



Dr Vendula Probstova

Consultant Psychologist, Centre for Mental Health Care


Prague, Czech Republic


Download: CANSAS



Knud Ramian

Senior Consultant, Centre for Quality Improvement

Region Midtjylland, Olof, Palmes Alle 15, 8200 Arhus,

North Denamark





Department of Social Psychiatry, WHO Collaborating Centre

University Hospital, Postsbus 30 001, NL-9700 RB Groningen,

The Netherlands



Professor Alain D Lesage

National Health Research Scholar, Fernand-Seguin Research Centre

Louis-H. Lafontaine Hospital. 7331 Hochelaga, Montreal, Quebec

Canada H1N 3V2


Download: CAN-C




Professor Stefan Priebe, Professor of Social Community

and Psychiatry

Wolfson Institue of Preventative Medicine, Queen Mary

University of London

Newham Centre for Mental Health, Cherry Tree Way, Glen Road London, E13 8SP





Dr Yanni Malliaris,, Asimaki Fotila 3, 11473 Athens, Greece







Dr Shirli Werner

Lecturer, Paul Baerwald School of Social Work and Social


Hebrew University of Jerusalem


Download: CANSAS-P



Devavrata Kumar

Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Psychiatry,

Central Institute of Psychiatry

Ranchi Jharkhand, India 834006



Zsolt Demetrovics

Eotvos Lorand University, Institute of Psychology, 

Department of Personality and Health Psychology


Download: CAN-R



Margret Eiriksdottir

Laugateigur 3, 105 Reykjavik, 



Download: CAN-R




Luky Thiehunan

Divisi Komunitas, Departemen Psikiatri, 

Universitas Indonesia

Jalan Kimia II No. 35, Jakarta Pusat - 10430, Indonesia



Professor Mirella Ruggeri

Servizio di Psicologia, Medica Instituto do Psichiatria

Universita do Verona

Ospedale Policlinico, 37134 Verona, Italy


Kannada (India)

Dr Jagadisha Thirthalli 


Dr C Naveen Kumar 


Professor & Associate Professor respectively in Department of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, India.


Leva Povilaitiene

Vilnius Centre for Psychosocial Rehabilitation

MK Oginskio 3, 2040 Vilnius, Lithuania


Download: CAN-C



Malaysian (Bahasa)

Aaron Fernandez

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences,

Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia


Download: CANSAS-P



Louise Xerri

c/o Mount Carmel Hospital 

Notabile Road, Attard BZ 10 09 Malta G.C.


Download: CAN-R


Mandarin (mainland China)

Chongmei Huang

Xiangya Nursing School of Central South University


Mandarin (Taiwanese)

Hong-shiow Yeh

Psychiatry Department, Veterans General Hospital,

Taipei, Taiwan



Ingunn Skre


Download: CANSAS



Katarzyna Spiridonow

Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, 

Department of Psychiatris Rehabilitation

1/9 Sobieskiego Str, 02-957 Warsaw, Poland 


Professor JM Caldes de Almeida

Universidade Nova De Lisboa, Clinica Universiteria de 

Psiquiatras Saude Mental

Calcada da Tapada 155, 1300 Lisboa, Portugal

Portuguese for Brazil

Paulo Rossi Menezes

Professor Doutor, Departamento de Medicina 

Preventiva, Faculdade de Medicina da 

Universidade de Sao Paulo

Av. Dr. Arnaldo 455, Sao Paulo, SP 01246-903 Brazil



Professor Dr Ioana Miclutia

Psychiatry Department, University of Medicine and Pharmacy,

Cluj-Napoca, Romania



Professor Jose Luis Vazquez-Barquero

Social Psychiatry Research Unit,

Cantabria Hospital Universitario Valdecilla

Av. Valdecilla, Santander 39008, Spain


Bo G. Ericson

Psykologisk Konsult AB

15. Bergsgatan, S 56131 Huskvarna, Sweden



Dr Armagan Y Samanci

Senior Registrar in Psychiatry 

Ziverbey, Hatboyu sok, Cunes Apt. DR 11/5

Istanbul 81040, Turkey


Jo Drake

305 Arthur Street, Fairfield, Victoria 3078, Australia



John Joska

Department of Psychiatry, University of Cape Town

c/o The Registrar, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701,




I have tried to contact the official translator for my language, and they have not responded. What should I do?

The translator may have moved on – the details listed above were correct at the time of translation. Please email us at and we can advise you how to proceed.

I have contacted the official translator for my language, and they do not yet have a finished translation. What should I do?

Decide between you and the official translator how to proceed. This might involve you informally supporting the official translator in their work, or taking over from them, or starting a new translation. If you should be listed as the new official translator then please email

I have contacted the official translator for my language, and they have not translated the version of the adult CAN that I want. What should I do?

Decide between you and the official translator how to proceed. This might involve you deciding to use the adult CAN version that the official translator has already developed, or you supporting the official translator in making a translation of the version you want, or you leading the translation of the version you want.

There is no translation of the adult CAN in my language, and I would like to make one. Can I have permission to proceed?

Yes, provided that the following conditions are all met:

1) you inform us by email to;

2) you make the following statement on the first page of your translation:
The adult CAN was developed by Mike Slade, Graham Thornicroft and others at the Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London. Further information from 

followed by your details: This version was translated into <language> by <your name and contact details>;

3) the translation is distributed free of charge by you to academic and clinical colleagues requesting a copy;

4) the translation is of an acceptable and publishable quality.

How do I ensure the translation is of an acceptable and publishable quality?

You will need to develop a translation protocol, which has four stages:

1) Ensure the cultural validity of domains. You may add to the 22 domains, but not remove them from your translation. You will need to investigate whether the 22 domains of the English version are sufficient for your setting – use surveys or focus groups, for example. If you add domains, then you will need to establish anchor points for each new domain.
2) Translate the adult CAN from English into your language, and then back-translate. Different people should do the translation and the back-translation. The translation will need to be checked for the appropriateness of all anchor points and trigger questions, with changes made where necessary. The back-translation will need to be checked for its conformance with the original English adult CAN.
3) Pilot the resulting translation, and make amendments to the trigger questions or anchor points as necessary.
4) Undertake a formal reliability and validity study.

We are happy to provide informal advice on any of these stages. Please email

What can I change when developing a translated version?

The principle is that each translation must be comparable with the original English adult CAN. The 22 domains of the English adult CAN must therefore be retained, although further culture-specific domains can be added.

The definitions of met need, unmet need and no need may not be altered.

The sections of the version(s) you are translating (CANSAS, CANSAS-P, CAN-C or CAN-R) and the scoring options for each section must match the original English adult CAN.

The trigger questions for each domain can be changed, and so can the anchor points which give examples for each rating.

I have translated the adult CAN, and I would like to publish a translation of the adult CAN book in my language. How do I proceed?

Once you have an agreement in principle with a publisher, you must contact us ( Your publisher will need to liaise with the publishers of the CAN book regarding copyright arrangements.